The predominance of limestone greatly influences the climate and the appearance of the vegetation. As a result of the limestone, the basic features are the deep valleys and steep slopes (Enipea Valley). The limestone makes the climate drier as well as increasing the temperature and absorbing the precipitation. The predominant forest species is Pinus leucodermis which forms mainly homogeneous clusters. Alpine valleys cover the area above the forest levels (2,500 m). There are many endemic species in which Jankaea heldreichii is included.
Mount Olympus is a mythical mountain (the home of the 12 gods of Greek mythology) with a variety of microclimates which are considered responsible for the reversion of the vegetation zones. The Pinus leucodermis in this area forms the highest forest levels in Europe (2,500 m). The greatest concentration of rare plants and animals establishes the area as a true paradise for the conservation of rare flora and fauna of Greece and Europe. The area makes up the core of the National Park which was founded in 1938.
Area: 4450 hectares